A continuacións se muestran los estudios analizados por el informe Bioinitiative Report 2012. En la última columna se puede ver tipificada cada uno de los estudios en función de sus afecciones sobre el cuerpo humano. Estos están agrupados en los siguientes grupos:

Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
Disrupted Calcium metabolism
Cancer (other than brain), cell proliferation
Stresss proteins, HSP, disrupted inmune function
Oxidative Damage/ROS/DNA damage/DNA repair failure
Brain tumors and blood-brain barrier
Reproduction/ fertility effects

 

Se exponen los estudios en función de su tipo de unidades:

 

Estudios sobre Efectos biológicos originados por la Exposición a Radiofrecuencias de baja intensidad (Torres de tensión, WIFI, Portátiles y Medidores inalambricoss Laptop and ‘Smart’ Meter RF Intensities)

 

As low as (10-13) or 100 femtowatts/cm2 Super-low intensity RFR effects at MW reasonant frequencies resulted in changes in genes; problems with chromatin conformation (DNA) Belyaev, 1997 Oxidative Damage/ROS/DNA damage/DNA repair failure
5 picowatts/cm2 (10- 12) Changed growth rates in yeast cells Grundler, 1992 Cancer (other than brain), cell proliferation
0.1 nanowatt/cm2 (10-10) or 100 picowatts/cm2 Super-low intensity RFR effects at MW reasonant frequencies resulted in changes in genes; problems with chromatin condensation (DNA) intensities comparable to base stations Belyaev, 1997 Oxidative Damage/ROS/DNA damage/DNA repair failure
0.00034 uW/cm2 Chronic exposure to mobile phone pulsed RF significantly reduced sperm count, Behari, 2006 Reproduction/ fertility effects
0.0005 uW/cm2 RFR decreased cell proliferation at 960 MHz GSM 217 Hz for 30-min exposure Velizarov, 1999 Cancer (other than brain), cell proliferation
0.0006 - 0.0128 uW/cm2 Fatigue, depressive tendency, sleeping disorders, concentration difficulties, cardio- vascular problems reported with exposure to GSM 900/1800 MHz cell phone signal at base station level exposures. Oberfeld, 2004 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
0.003 - 0.02 uW/cm2 In children and adolescents (8-17 yrs) short-term exposure caused headache, irritation, concentration difficulties in school. Heinrich, 2010 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
0.003 to 0.05 uW/cm2 In children and adolescents (8-17 yrs) short-term exposure caused conduct problems in school (behavioral problems) Thomas, 2010 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
0.005 uW/cm2 In adults (30-60 yrs) chronic exposure caused sleep disturbances, (but not significantly increased across the entire population) Mohler, 2010 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
0.005 - 0.04 uW/cm2 Adults exposed to short-term cell phone radiation reported headaches, concentration difficulties (differences not significant, but elevated) Thomas, 2008 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
0.006 - 0.01 uW/cm2 Chronic exposure to base station RF (whole-body) in humans showed increased stress hormones; dopamine levels substantially decreased; higher levels of adrenaline and nor-adrenaline; dose-response seen; produced chronic physiological stress in cells even after 1.5 years. Buchner, 2012 Stresss proteins, HSP, disrupted inmune function
0.01 - 0.11 uW/cm2 RFR from cell towers caused fatigue, headaches, sleeping problems Navarro, 2003 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
0.01 - 0.05 uW/cm2 Adults (18-91 yrs) with short-term exposure to GSM cell phone radiation reported headache, neurological problems, sleep and concentration problems. Hutter, 2006 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
0.005 - 0.04 uW/cm2 Adults exposed to short-term cell phone radiation reported headaches, concentration difficulties (differences not significant, but elevated) Thomas, 2008 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
0.015 - 0.21 uW/cm2 Adults exposed to short-term GSM 900 radiation reported changes in mental state (e.g., calmness) but limitations of study on language descriptors prevented refined word choices (stupified, zoned-out) Augner, 2009 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
0.05 - 0.1 uW/cm2 RFR linked to adverse neurological, cardio symptoms and cancer risk Khurana, 2010
0.05 - 0.1 uW/cm2 RFR related to headache, concentration and sleeping problems, fatigue Kundi, 2009 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
0.07 - 0.1 uW/cm2 Sperm head abnormalities in mice exposed for 6-months to base station level RF/MW. Sperm head abnormalities occurred in 39% to 46% exposed mice (only 2% in controls) abnormalities was also found to be dose dependent. The implications of the pin-head and banana-shaped sperm head. The occurrence of sperm head observed increase occurrence of sperm head abnormalities on the reproductive health of humans living in close proximity to GSM base stations were discussed." Otitoloju, 2010 Reproduction/ fertility effects
0.38 uW/cm2 RFR affected calcium metabolism in heart cells Schwartz, 1990 Disrupted Calcium metabolism
0.8 - 10 uW/cm2 RFR caused emotional behavior changes, free-radical damage by super-weak MWs Akoev, 2002 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
0.13 uW/cm2 RFR from 3G cell towers decreased cognition, well-being Zwamborn, 2003 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
0.16 uW/cm2 Motor function, memory and attention of school children affected (Latvia) Kolodynski, 1996 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
0.168 - 1.053 uW/cm2 Irreversible infertility in mice after 5 generations of exposure to RFR from an 'antenna park' Magras & Zenos, 1997 Reproduction/ fertility effects
0.2 - 8 uW/cm2 RFR caused a two-fold increase in leukemia in children Hocking, 1996 Cancer (other than brain), cell proliferation
0.2 - 8 uW/cm2 RFR decreased survival in children with leukemia Hocking, 2000 Cancer (other than brain), cell proliferation
0.21 - 1.28 uW/cm2 Adolescents and adults exposed only 45 min to UMTS cell phone radiation reported increases In headaches. Riddervold, 2008 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
0.5 uW/cm2 Significant degeneration of seminiferous epithelium in mice at 2.45 GHz, 30-40 min. Saunders, 1981 Reproduction/ fertility effects
0.5 - 1.0 uW/cm2 Wi-FI level laptop exposure for 4-hr resulted in decrease in sperm viability, DNA fragmentation with sperm samples placed in petri dishes under a laptop connected via WI-FI to the internet. Avendano, 2012 Reproduction/ fertility effects
1.0 uW/cm2 RFR induced pathological leakage of the blood-brain barrier Persson, 1997 Brain tumors and blood-brain barrier
1.0 uW/cm2 RFR caused significant effect on immune function in mice Fesenko, 1999 Stresss proteins, HSP, disrupted inmune function
1.0 uW/cm2 RFR affected function of the immune system Novoselova, 1999 Stresss proteins, HSP, disrupted inmune function
1.0 uW/cm2 Short-term (50 min) exposure in electrosensitive patients, caused loss of well-being after GSM and especially UMTS cell phone radiation exposure Eltiti, 2007 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
1.3 - 5.7 uW/cm2 RFR associated with a doubling of leukemia in adults Dolk, 1997 Cancer (other than brain), cell proliferation
1.25 uW/cm2 RFR exposure affected kidney development in rats (in-utero exposure) Pyrpasopoulou, 2004 Reproduction/ fertility effects
1.5 uW/cm2 RFR reduced memory function in rats Nittby, 2007 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
2 uW/cm2 RFR induced double-strand DNA damage in rat brain cells Kesari, 2008 Oxidative Damage/ROS/DNA damage/DNA repair failure
2.5 uW/cm2 RFR affected calcium concentrations in heart muscle cells Wolke, 1996 Disrupted Calcium metabolism
2 - 4 uW/cm2 Altered cell membranes; acetycholine-induced ion channel disruption D'Inzeo, 1988 Stresss proteins, HSP, disrupted inmune function
4 uW/cm2 RFR caused changes in hippocampus (brain memory and learning) Tattersall, 2001 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
4 - 15 uW/cm2 Memory impairment, slowed motor skills and retarded learning in children Chiang, 1989 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
5 uW/cm2 RFR caused drop in NK lymphocytes (immune function decreased) Boscolo, 2001 Stresss proteins, HSP, disrupted inmune function
5.25 uW/cm2 20 minutes of RFR at cell tower frequencies induced cell stress response Kwee, 2001 Stresss proteins, HSP, disrupted inmune function
5 - 10 uW/cm2 RFR caused impaired nervous system activity Dumansky, 1974 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
6 uW/cm2 RFR induced DNA damage in cells Phillips, 1998 Oxidative Damage/ROS/DNA damage/DNA repair failure
8.75 uW/cm2 RFR at 900 MHz for 2-12 hours caused DNA breaks in leukemia cells Marinelli, 2004 Oxidative Damage/ROS/DNA damage/DNA repair failure
10 uW/cm2 Changes in behavior (avoidance) after 0.5 hour exposure to pulsed RFR Navakatikian, 1994 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
10 - 100 uW/cm2 Increased risk in radar operators of cancer; very short latency period; dose response to exposure level of RFR Richter, 2000 reported. Cancer (other than brain), cell proliferation
12.5 uW/cm2 RFR caused calcium efflux in cells - can affect many critical cell functions Dutta, 1989 Disrupted Calcium metabolism
13.5 uW/cm2 RFR affected human lymphocytes - induced stress response in cells Sarimov, 2004 Stresss proteins, HSP, disrupted inmune function
20 uW/cm2 Increase in serum cortisol (a stress hormone) Mann, 1998 Stresss proteins, HSP, disrupted inmune function
28.2 uW/cm2 RFR increased free radical production in rat cells Yurekli, 2006 Oxidative Damage/ROS/DNA damage/DNA repair failure
37.5 uW/cm2 Immune system effects - elevation of PFC count (antibody producing cells Veyret, 1991 Stresss proteins, HSP, disrupted inmune function
45 uW/cm2 Pulsed RFR affected serum testosterone levels in mice Forgacs, 2006 Reproduction/ fertility effects
50 uW/cm2 Cell phone RFR caused a pathological leakage of the blood-brain barrier in 1 hour Salford, 2003 Brain tumors and blood-brain barrier
50 uW/cm2 An 18% reduction in REM sleep (important to memory and learning functions) Mann, 1996 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
60 uW/cm2 RFR caused structural changes in cells of mouse embryos Somozy, 1991 Reproduction/ fertility effects
60 uW/cm2 Pulsed RFR affected immune function in white blood cells Stankiewicz, 2006 Stresss proteins, HSP, disrupted inmune function
60 uW/cm2 Cortex of the brain was activated by 15 minutes of 902 MHz cell phone Lebedeva, 2000 Sleep, neuron firing rate, EEG, memory, learning, behaviour
65 uW/cm2 RFR affected genes related to cancer Ivaschuk, 1999 Brain tumors and blood-brain barrier
92.5 uW/cm2 RFR caused genetic changes in human white blood cells Belyaev, 2005 Oxidative Damage/ROS/DNA damage/DNA repair failure
100 uW/cm2 Changes in immune function Elekes, 1996 Stresss proteins, HSP, disrupted inmune function
100 uW/cm2 A 24.3% drop in testosterone after 6 hours of CW RFR exposure Navakatikian, 1994 Reproduction/ fertility effects
120 uW/cm2 A pathological leakage in the blood-brain barrier with 915 MHz cell RF Salford, 1994 Brain tumors and blood-brain barrier
500 epithelial cells exposed to 2.45 GHz pulsed at 16 Hz showed changes in intercellular calcium. Disrupted Calcium metabolism
500 drop in testosterone and 23.2% drop in insulin after 12 hrs of pulsed RFR exposure. Reproduction/ fertility effects
As low as (10-13) or 100 femtowatts/cm2 Super-low intensity RFR effects at MW reasonant frequencies resulted in changes in genes; problems with chromatin conformation (DNA) Belyaev, 1997 Oxidative Damage/ROS/DNA damage/DNA repair failure
5 picowatts/cm2 (10- 12) Changed growth rates in yeast cells Grundler, 1992 Cancer (other than brain), cell proliferation
0.1 nanowatt/cm2 (10-10) or 100 picowatts/cm2 Super-low intensity RFR effects at MW reasonant frequencies resulted in changes in genes; problems with chromatin condensation (DNA) intensities comparable to base stations Belyaev, 1997 Oxidative Damage/ROS/DNA damage/DNA repair failure
0.00034 uW/cm2 Chronic exposure to mobile phone pulsed RF significantly reduced sperm count, Behari, 2006 Reproduction/ fertility effects
0.0005 uW/cm2 RFR decreased cell proliferation at 960 MHz GSM 217 Hz for 30-min exposure Velizarov, 1999 Cancer (other than brain), cell proliferation

 

STANDARDS
0.08 W/Kg  IEEE Standard uncontrolled public environment (whole body) IEEE
0.4 W/Kg  IEEE Standard controlled occupational environment (whole body) IEEE
2 W/Kg  ICNIRP SAR limit for 10 grams of tissue ICNIRP, 1996

 

Estudios sobre Efectos biológicos originados por la Exposición a Radiofrecuencias de baja intensidad (Torres de tensión, WIFI, Portátiles y Medidores inalambricoss Laptop and ‘Smart’ Meter RF Intensities)

 

STANDARDS
530 – 600 uW/cm2
1000 uW/cm2
5000 uW/cm2
Limit for uncontrolled public exposure to 800-900 MHz
PCS STANDARD for public exposure (as of September 1,1997)
PCS STANDARD for occupational exposure (as of September 1, 1997)
BACKGROUND LEVELS
0.003 uW/cm2
0.05 uW/cm2
0.1 – 10 uW/cm2
Background RF levels in US cities and suburbs in the 1990s Median ambient power density in cities in Sweden (30-2000 MHz)
Ambient power density within 100-200′ of cell site in US (data from 2000)